C Interview Questions and Answers

 

How do I swap bytes?

V7 Unix had a swab function, but it seems to have been forgotten.



A problem with explicit byte-swapping code is that you have to decide whether to
call it or not, based on the byte order of the data and the byte order of the machine
in use.



A better solution is to define functions which convert between the known byte order
of the data and the (unknown) byte order of the machine in use, and to arrange for
these functions to be no-ops on those machines which already match the desired byte
order. A set of such functions, introduced with the BSD networking code but now
in wide use, is ntohs, htons, ntohl, and htonl. These are intended to convert between
``network'' and ``host'' byte orders, for ``short''
or ``long'' integers, where ``network'' order is always big-endian,
and where ``short'' integers are always 16 bits and ``long''
integers are 32 bits. (This is not the C definition, of course, but it's compatible
with the C definition) So if you know that the data you want to convert from or
to is big-endian, you can use these functions. (The point is that you always call
the functions, making your code much cleaner. Each function either swaps bytes if
it has to, or does nothing. The decision to swap or not to swap gets made once,
when the functions are implemented for a particular machine, rather than being made
many times in many different calling programs.)

Posted by:Richards