What are the processes that autotrophic beings use to produce organic material from inorganic substances?
What are autotrophic beings? What are heterotrophic beings?
What are abiotic factors?
What are biotic factors?
What is the difference between ecological niche and habitat?
What is a community? What is the difference between the concepts of community and population?
What are the major terrestrial biomes?
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the tundras?
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the taigas?
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the temperate forests?
What are deciduous trees?
What is the typical localization of the tropical forests regarding latitude?
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the tropical forests?
How can the abundance and diversity of living beings in the tropical forests be explained?
Why the tropical forests are also known as stratified forests?
What is the typical vegetation of the grasslands?
How are the grasslands of North America and of South America respectively called?
How are grasslands classified?
What are the typical vegetation and the typical fauna of the deserts?
Which terrestrial vertebrate group is extremely rare in deserts?
What are plankton, nekton, and benthos?
What are the phytoplankton and the zooplankton?
What is the group of aquatic beings composed of large number of photosynthetic beings?
What is the primary energy source for life on earth?
What is the main means by which autotrophic beings obtain energy?
Which is the autotrophic group responsible for the production of most part of the molecular oxygen of earth?
In the ecological study of food interactions how are the autotrophic beings called?
How are the heterotrophic beings divided in the ecological study of food interactions?
What is a food chain?
How is energy transferred along a food chain?
What are tropic levels? How many tropic levels can a food chain have?
What are primary consumers? Can food chain present quaternary consumers without having secondary or tertiary consumers? Can a tertiary consumer of one chain be a primary or secondary consumer of another chain?
What is the difference between the concepts of food chain and food web?
What are the three main types of tropic pyramids studied in Ecology?
What do numeric pyramids represent?
In a numeric pyramid to which tropic level does the base always refer?
In a numeric pyramid, is it possible the base to be smaller than the other levels?
In the short range what will happen to the levels above and below a population of secondary consumers of a numeric pyramid if a large number of individuals from this population dies?
What do biomass pyramids represent?
What do energy pyramids represent?
Into which type of energy is the light used in photosynthesis transformed.
Can the amount of available energy in a given tropic level to be larger than the available energy in inferior tropic levels? What does that condition means to the conformation of the energy pyramids?
What is the gross primary production of an ecosystem? How does GPP relate to photosynthesis?
What are the factors that for influencing photosynthesis also interfere with the gross primary productivity?
What are the destinations of the organic material fabricated by the producers?
What is the formula of the net primary production (NPP)? How does NPP relate to the energy pyramids?
What are biogeochemical cycles?
What is the respective importance of water, carbon, and nitrogen for the living beings?
What is the water cycle?
Why is the sun the "motor" of the water cycle?
What is the carbon cycle?
What is the main biological process that consumes carbon dioxide?
How is carbon dioxide made by producers and consumers?
What are fossil fuels?
What is the most abundant form under which nitrogen is found in nature?
Under which form is nitrogen fixed by the living beings.
What is the nitrogen cycle?
Why is leguminous crop rotation used in agriculture?
What is biodiversity?
How does biological diversity relate to the characteristics of the abiotic factors of an ecosystem?
How does the vegetal stratification of an ecosystem influence the biological diversity?
Despite having a great biodiversity why, is the Amazon Rainforest under risk of desertification?
How can a great biological diversity protect an ecosystem from environmental damages? Why are less biodiverse ecosystems under the risk of suffering deep biological harms if submitted to even small changes?
Is monoculture a system that contributes to great biological diversity of an ecosystem?
What are some economic applications that can be generated by very biodiverse ecosystems?
What are the main causes of the loss of the biological diversity nowadays?
What is inharmonious ecological interaction?
How are ecological interactions classified?
What are intraspecific and interspecific ecological interactions?
What is harmonious ecological interaction?
What are the main intraspecific ecological interactions?
What are colonies and societies?
What is competition? Which type of ecological interaction is competition?
What is an example of intraspecific competition?
Why is cannibalism an inharmonious intraspecific ecological interaction?
What are the main interspecific ecological interactions?
What is protocooperation?
What is commensalism?
What benefits can commensalism offer to a species?
What are some examples of interspecif competition?
What are some examples of parasitism?
Is herbivorism a form of predatism?
What is ecological succession?
What are pioneer species? What is the role of the pioneer species?
What is the difference between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession?
What is the climax stage of an ecological succession?
How do biodiversity, the total number of living beings, and the biomass respectively vary during the ecological succession?
What is a population?
What is population density?
What is population growth rate?
How different are the concepts of migration, emigration, and immigration
What are the main factors that affect the growth of a population?
What are some examples of migratory animals?
What is biotic potential?
What is the typical shape of a population growth curve? How the biotic potential can be represented in the same graphic?
What is environmental resistance?
What are the main limiting factors for the growth of a population?
How do the availability of water and light and the climate affect the growth of a population?
How do populations of predators and preys vary in predatism?
What is the relation between environmental resistance and the population growth according to the biotic potential curve and the real population growth curve?
How different is the growth according to the biotic potential of a viral population from the growth according to the biotic potential of a bacterial population?
What are age pyramids?
What are the analyses provided by the study of human age pyramids?
What are the main characteristics of the age pyramids of developed countries?
What is the typical conformation of the age pyramids of underdeveloped countries?
Is pollution always caused by humans?
Why waste is considered one of the major environmental issues?
What are the main types of waste?
What is selective waste collection?
What is the cost-benefit relation regarding sewage treatment as a strategy to fight water pollution?
What is eutrophication?
What is a biodigester?
What are the environmental harms caused by mercury pollution? What are the main sources of mercury pollution?
Besides mercury which other heavy metals cause toxic pollution?
What are persistent organic pollutants (POPs)?
Is the upward move of the warm air good or bad for the dispersion of pollutants?
Does thermal inversion occur in the winter or in the summer?
Why does thermal inversion increases air pollution? Which harms can thermal inversion cause to humans?
What is the role of the ozone layer for the living beings?
What are the main chemical compounds that destroy the ozone layer?
What is nuclear pollution?
What is plutonium reprocessing? Why is it a big environmental issue?
What is transgenic food?
Why transgenics are considered a threat to the environmental safety?
What is biologic control?
What is bioremediation?
What is global warming?