What is a "gene expression signature" for a tumor?
What are the benefits of high-throughput expression analysis in molecular biological investigations?
To what 2 aspects of a usability assessment should the word "representative" apply?
Dr Jones is a pathologist who has recently developed a virtual microscope program for teenagers to use while they are hospitalized. He thinks that teens might use this program to learn more about their illness and the role that pathology plays in the hospital. He has heard that usability is important, so he asks a few of his colleagues to try the program out in their free time and to e-mail their comments to him. Describe 3 specific things that Dr Jones should have done differently in order; to more appropriately assess the usability of his program.
There are about 40 000 human genes and ESTs (expressed sequence tags) available on the Affymetrix Gene Chips for gene expression. Make some reasonable assumptions and estimate, for a normal organ, the number of genes that will appear to be expressed significantly greater than or less than the population norm (95% confidence interval).
In ionizing radiation, cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle are most sensitive?
In ionizing radiation, mitosis does not occur in irradiated cells?
In ionizing radiation, cells experiencing hypoxia are vulnerable to radiation damage?
In ionizing radiation granulation tissue, formation is delayed in wounds, which have been radiated?
In ionizing radiation, undifferentiated tumors are usually more sensitive to radiation than differentiated tumors.
Early suture removal does not affect the granulomatous response.
Monocytes clean the debris left by phagocytes.
The epidermal and dermal epithelia grow downwards along the suture track.
Fibroblasts have a contractile function, which helps to produce a small scar.
The wound site becomes vascular as time passes.
Gangrene refers to tissue necrosis with or without infection.
Acute inflammation usually occurs around necrotic tissues.
Apoptosis does not usually cause inflammation.
Autolytic changes in the nucleus are pathognomonic of necrosis.
The blood vessels surrounding an acutely inflamed site usually show progressive vasodilatation from the time of injury.
With regard to cell growth, ionizing radiation can cause atrophy.
With regard to cell growth, hypocalcaemia can lead to enlargement of the parathyroid gland.
With regard to cell growth, the main stimulus for hypertrophy is hormonal
With regard to cell growth, in metaplasia, there is a change of a type of differentiated cell to a type of undifferentiated cell
With regard to cell growth, achondroplasia does not affect membranous bone
During wound healing, the inflammation is greater for catgut than nylon
During wound healing, with absorbable suture, the wound strength decreases from the time of suturing.
During wound healing, in scurvy the wound is weak due to increased activity of collagenase.
During wound healing, in infected wound collagen lysis is increase.
During wound healing, during collagen synthesis, lysine and proline are directly incorporated into the collagen molecules.
Atherosclerosis occurs in the retinal artery.
In atherosclerosis, foamy macrophages are seen in type I plaque.
In atherosclerosis, thinning of the intima is a feature.
In atherosclerosis, proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the intima is typical.
In atherosclerosis, raised HDL is associated with atherosclerosis.
Protein C deficiency may cause central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient.
Excess protein S may cause central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient.
Antithrombin III deficiency may cause central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient.
Atrial fibrillation may cause central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient.
Factor V Leiden mutation may cause central retinal vein occlusion in a young patient.
In cerebral infarction, the area of infarct tends to be wedge-shaped.
Cerebral infarction can result from thrombosis of the external carotid artery disease.
In cerebral infarction, coagulative necrosis occurs in the brain tissue.
In cerebral infarction, cortical blindness can result from infarction of the anterior cerebral artery.
In cerebral infarction, the necrotic tissue is eventually replaced by Schwann cells.
Phthsical eye can give rise to metastatic calcification.
Sarcoidosis can give rise to metastatic calcification.
Renal failure can give rise to metastatic calcification.
Pulmonary tuberculosis can give rise to metastatic calcification.
Multiple myeloma can give rise to metastatic calcification.
In the presence of inflammation, platelets are raised.
In the presence of inflammation, ferritins are raised.
In the presence of inflammation, caeruloplasmin are raised.
In the presence of inflammation, fibrinogens are raised.
In the presence of inflammation, complement proteins are raised.
Hyperplasia results in increased cell size.
Hyperplasia results in increased cell numbers.
Hyperplasia occurs in corneal endothelium.
Hyperplasia occurs in retinal pigment epithelium.
Hyperplasia occurs in myocardium.
Amyloid occurs in chronic inflammatory disorders.
Amyloid occurs in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.
Amyloid is a basophilic substance, which can be stained with Congo red.
Amyloid weakens the walls of blood vessels.
Amyloid causes renal failure.
Hamartoma is usually present at birth.
Hamartoma contains cells from all three germ layers.
Hamartoma does not predispose to malignancy.
Hamartoma contains metaplastic cell types.
Aadenoma sebaceum seen in tuberous sclerosis is a type of hamartoma.
Solar keratosis predisposes the squamous cell carcinoma.
Bowens disease predisposes the squamous cell carcinoma.
Chronic eczema predisposes the squamous cell carcinoma.
Chronic ulceration predisposes the squamous cell carcinoma.
Keratoacanthoma predispose the squamous cell carcinoma.
In sickle cell disease, the disorder is a single gene disorder.
In sickle cell disease, carrier has normal blood test.
In sickle cell disease, the abnormality involves the alpha chain of the globin molecule.
In sickle cell disease, there is absence of HbA.
In sickle cell disease, sickle cell crisis does not affect carrier of the disease.
Bowens disease causes increased risk of skin malignancy.
Solar keratosis causes increased risk of skin malignancy.
Aacanthosis nigricans causes increased risk of skin malignancy.
Squamous papilloma causes increased risk of skin malignancy.
Keratoacanthoma causes increased risk of skin malignancy.
Keratoacanthoma is also called molluscum sebaceum.
Keratoacanthoma usually remits spontaneously without leaving scar.
Keratoacanthoma is caused by a poxvirus.
In Keratoacanthoma, central necrosis is uncommon.
Keratoacanthoma is histologically difficult to distinguish from squamous cell carcinoma.
Abnormalities of blood clotting occur in patients taking brufen.
Abnormalities of blood clotting occur in thalassaemia.
Abnormalities of blood clotting occur in sickle cell disease?
Abnormalities of blood clotting occur in Christmas disease?
Abnormalities of blood clotting occur in von Willebrands disease.
Berry aneurysm is most often found in the circle of Willis.
Berry aneurysms result from atheroma.
Berry aneurysms are associated with diabetes mellitus.
Berry aneurysms are associated with polycystic renal disease.
In corneal transplantation in the UK, whole eye is kept in the culture medium in the eye bank.
In corneal transplantation in the UK, the cornea is kept at sub-zero temperature in the bank.
In corneal transplantation in the UK, donor eyes older than 65 years of age are rejected.
In corneal transplantation in the UK, specular microscopy is used to count the number of endothelial cells.
In corneal transplantation in the UK, HLA matching is routinely carried out before use.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a commoner malignant skin tumor than basal cell carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma only occurs in the skin.
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumor seen in transplant patient.
In Squamous cell carcinoma, metastasis is usually to the regional lymph nodes.
In Squamous cell carcinoma, the tumours typically have everted edges.
Sebaceous cyst arises in the dermis.
In Sebaceous cyst, central punctum is a common feature
In Sebaceous cyst, scalp is a common location.
Sebaceous cyst is firmly adheres to the skin.
Sebaceous cyst contains mucopolysaccharides.
If dermoid cyst found in the orbital region is usually located in the medial angle of the eye.
Dermoid cyst is lined by squamous epithelium.
In Dermoid, cyst hair may be found in the cyst.
In most cases dermoid cyst are congenital.
In Dermoid, cyst rupture of the cyst is associated with foreign body type inflammation.
A true aneurysm is covered by all three layers of the vessel.
Dissecting aneurysm results from destruction of the vessel media layer.
Hypertension is associated with formation of true aneurysm.
Berry aneurysm is associated with hypercholesterolaemia.
An internal carotid aneurysm in the cavernous sinus can give rise to ipsilateral miosis.
Malignant melanoma is commoner in females than males.
In malignant melanoma, amelanotic type is more aggressive than pigmented type.
In malignant melanoma, malignant transformation in common moles is about 1:10,000.
In malignant melanoma, staging is according to the size of the tumor.
Malignant melanoma is found exclusively in the skin.
Phagocytosis microorganisms are killed by hydrogen peroxide.
Phagocytosis microorganisms are killed by lysozyme.
Phagocytosis microorganisms are killed by lymphokines.
Phagocytosis microorganisms are killed by complement system.
Phagocytosis microorganisms are killed by IgG.
Collagens are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum of the fibroblasts.
Collagens are secreted into the extracellular space as tropocollagen.
The total amount of collagen in a wound reaches normal level within 4 weeks.
Collagens synthesis is impaired in the presence of glucocortisoids.
Collagens production is impaired in vitamin C deficiency.
Anaphylaxis occurs in 24 hours after the initial stimulus.
Anaphylaxis causes eosinophilia.
Anaphylaxis causes degranulation of basophils and mast cells.
Anaphylaxis is produced by Ig E antibody.
Anaphylaxis causes urticaria.
Necrosis is a feature in actinomycosis.
Necrosis is a feature in syphilis.
Necrosis is a feature in sarcoidosis.
Necrosis is a feature in tuberculosis.
Necrosis is a feature in leprosy.
Amyloid reacts with the Congo red stains.
Amyloid reacts with the thioflavine –T stains.
Amyloid reacts with the methyl violet stains.
Amyloid reacts with the alcian blue stains.
Amyloid reacts with the Prussian blue stains.
Outcomes research is often limited in the conclusions that can be drawn because of limitations in the data sources used for the studies. What are the most common data sources and what are their main limitations?
Define "association rules" and describe their use in exploratory data mining.
What advantage does a pathologist have over investigators in most other fields in carrying out outcomes or data-mining studies?
What are process measures in outcomes research and why are they sometimes used in place of actual outcomes data?
Describe the main difference between the hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating approaches to data mining.
What is an "entity-relationship" diagram useful for, state briefly?
Most of the artificial intelligence systems we discussed rely on some kind of knowledge representation, with the notable exception of neural networks. Where is the "knowledge" in a neural network stored?
How are neural networks different than Bayesian belief networks along the following dimensions:
(1) inspect ability of knowledge,
(2) need for probabilities acquired from "domain" experts,
(3) need for data to train the system, and
(4) ability of the system to make classifications based on input data. (Note: You may find it helpful to make a 2 × 4 table and include a short phrase or two in each cell.)
What is the Arden syntax?
You are working with an intensive care unit (ICU) attending physician on a project to see if you can predict readmission for patients with pancreatitis. You have access to a large database of ICU data (such as cardiac catheter values, vital signs, and respiratory parameters), as well as all of the data that can be gleaned from the LIS. There are approximately 800 measurements of various types for each of 4000 patients. You do not really have any specific ideas about what values would be most predictive; in fact, you think it is likely that the predictors are highly complex combinations of factors. Which of the 3 types of artificial intelligence systems would be most appropriate for this problem, and why?
Rule-based systems underlie most clinical event monitors (programs that detect important clinical events and notify appropriate medical personnel). Often these systems work in conjunction with data from the clinical pathology LIS. What aspects of clinical pathology make a rule-based system a reasonable approach?
Artificial intelligence and data-mining systems often use "training data sets" and "test data sets." Define these terms and describe briefly how these data sets are used.